Ways to help patients form opinions on, and share, how important various options and their features are. Examples include: (a) describing features of options, so that patients can imagine and evaluate what it is like to undergo procedures and live with the consequences; (b) providing examples of how other patients’ values led them to make different choices; (c) bringing forth values by guiding patients to rate or compare different features of options; and (d) recording, guiding, or coaching patients to help them share their values with others involved in the decision.

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